Excodra Barcelonra
UC (Universidad de Cantabria)

UC (Universidad de Cantabria)

La Universidad de Cantabria pone a disposición de sus alumnos toda una serie de recursos que les permitan adquirir una formación integral. Sus planes de estudios buscan en este contexto un adecuado equilibrio entre práctica y teoría, que el alumno puede enriquecer con diversos servicios complementarios: programas de prácticas en empresas, cursos de idiomas, puntos de acceso a las nuevas tecnologías, programas de intercambio con universidades europeas y americanas, actividades de orientación y tutoría, etc. El paso por el campus de la Universidad de Cantabria constituye, al mismo tiempo, una oportunidad irrepetible para disfrutar de una extensa oferta de actividades culturales y deportivas, desarrollar proyectos a través de las asociaciones estudiantiles o participar en la definición y gobierno de la institución a través de los órganos de representación. http://web.unican.es/

Se aportan nuevos datos para comprender mejor las neuropatías síndrome de Guillain-Barré y Charcot-Marie-Tooth

Fuente: UNICAN | Publicado: 02-02-2018
Entre las conclusiones más recientes de sus estudios, se han aportado evidencias de que el que fuera presidente de Estados Unidos, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, padeció, precisamente, síndrome de Guillain-Barré y no polio.
Derechos: El profesor emérito de la UC, José A. Berciano, y las doctoras María José Sedano (derecha) y Ana Lara Pelayo-Negro (izquierda).
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El grupo de investigación de Neurología de la Universidad de Cantabria (UC) y del Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla (HUMV) desarrolla una continuada labor de investigación clínica en la patología del sistema nervioso periférico y, particularmente, en la enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT), neuropatía hereditaria, y el síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB), neuropatía inflamatoria y adquirida.


Como resultado de sus trabajos, han descrito los primeros estudios epidemiológicos españoles en ambas afecciones, estableciendo que la prevalencia de CMT en Cantabria es de 28 casos por 100.000 habitantes, mientras que la incidencia anual del SGB es de 0,95 casos por 100.000 (unos 5 ó 6 casos/año).



El Síndrome de Guillain-Barré es, según explican los investigadores, la causa más frecuente de parálisis ascendente aguda en los países desarrollados. En el último año, los investigadores en Cantabria, con la participación del catedrático de Neurología de la UC y profesor emérito José Ángel Berciano Blanco, han descrito dónde están las lesiones y han aportado la relevancia patogénica de las lesiones de los troncos nerviosos proximales, particularmente de los nervios espinales, que "a nuestro entender son cruciales para comprender los mecanismos de daño de las fibras nerviosas y, consecuentemente, para planificar nuevas estrategias terapéuticas", según María José Sedano, médico adjunto de Neurología (HUMV) y profesora colaboradora de Neurología (UC), cuya investigación se centra en la determinación de sus subtipos y evolución clínica, así como en las correlaciones con las pruebas neurofisiológicas y ultrasonográficas de nervio.


"Es irónico comprobar", añade Berciano, "que similares hallazgos hubieran sido ya descritos hace seis décadas por autores norteamericanos y alemanes, habiendo pasado en gran medida inadvertidos en la literatura".



GB y Roosevelt


Precisamente, sus trabajos en relación a la afectación de los nervios espinales de SGB "ha ayudado a interpretar mejor la semiología paralítica aguda que afectó, en agosto de 1921, a Franklin Delano Roosevelt. "Pese a que presentó déficit sensitivo en las piernas y vivísimas algias en la espalda y en las piernas", Roosevelt fue diagnosticado de "poliomielitis paralítica", según recuerda el catedrático Berciano, que añade que "tal semiología sensitiva ahora sabemos que es característico de la patología inflamatoria de los nervios espinales en el SGB. Así, pues, el que fuera presidente de Estados Unidos desde 1933 hasta su muerte en 1945 no padeció polio, sino síndrome de Guillain-Barré", sentencia el profesor.



Foto: Roosevelt en Warm Springs, Georgia, en 1923, en la que se aprecia, explica Berciano, "la acusada amiotrofia simétrica de muslos y piernas, mientras que la musculatura de tronco y brazos está preservada. Se insinúa una deformidad en garra de su mano derecha, lo cual podría indicar cierta afectación de su musculatura intrínseca". Figura tomada de Goldman et al (2003).


CMT


Por su parte, en relación a la enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT), neuropatía hereditaria más frecuente (a partir de la prevalencia en Cantabria puede estimarse que en España hay alrededor de 13.000 pacientes), se trata, según explica la investigadora Ana L. Pelayo-Negro, médico adjunto de Neurología (HUMV), "uno de los síndromes más complejos, dado que se han identificado mutaciones en más de 80 genes". "La forma intermedia de CMT es particularmente compleja por la falta de criterios neurofisiológicos unitarios", añade Pelayo-Negro. Por ello, "hemos abordado la cuestión precisando los criterios de diagnóstico y proponiendo una drástica revisión del esquema de clasificación propuesto en Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), la mayor base de datos que cataloga todas las enfermedades humanas conocidas con un componente genético".


La actividad investigadora en el grupo de Ana L. Pelayo-Negro versa, precisamente, en torno a la epidemiología genética de la enfermedad, tratando de establecer el substrato molecular de CMT es sus principales subtipos.



Trabajo multidisciplinar

El trabajo desarrollado por el grupo de Neurología cuenta con una colaboración multidisciplinar, en la que intervienen otros servicios del HUMV y grupos de la UC y cuenta también con la colaboración de las Universidades de Amberes y Rótterdam. Además, participan en el European CMT Consortium y en el Proyecto IGOS (International GBS Outcome Study).


 


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