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UAM (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)

UAM (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)

La Universidad Autónoma de Madrid es una universidad pública española, ubicada en Madrid y fundada en 1968, momento en que sus facultades estaban dispersas por diversos edificios de la capital española. En junio de 2018 la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid cumplirá sus primeros 50 años. Para celebrar este aniversario, la universidad prepara un programa conmemorativo que se desarrollará entre los años 2016 y 2019 e incluirá actividades abiertas a todo el conjunto de la sociedad. https://www.uam.es/

Nuevos diseños con nanopartículas de metales líquidos para biosensores plasmónicos

Fuente: UAM Gazette | Publicado: 14-02-2018
Un equipo de físicos de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) ha logrado mejorar las características de las nanopartículas biosensoras fabricadas a partir de metales líquidos plasmónicos, una tecnología puntera útil para detectar precozmente enfermedades como la fibrosis quística o el cáncer. El trabajo ha sido destacado en la portada de la revista Nanotechnology.
Derechos: Izq. arriba: Nanopartículas de galio. Izq. abajo: Estimación del aumento del óxido de galio a 300 ºC a diferentes tiempos. Drcha: Simulación del aumento del campo eléctrico en una nanopartícula de galio sobre silicio con diferentes espesores de óxido. UAM.
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El galio es un metal líquido a temperatura ambiente que puede combinarse fácilmente para formar partículas de tamaño nanométrico. Gracias a sus buenas propiedades eléctricas y sus bajas pérdidas ópticas, estas nanopartículas son capaces de focalizar la luz en sus vecindades debido a la excitación de los electrones en la superficie. Este fenómeno se denomina plasmón y da lugar a toda una rama de la Física conocida como Plasmónica, con numerosas aplicaciones en sensores, láseres, tecnología fotovoltaica, etc.


Investigadores del Grupo de Electrónica y Semiconductores de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) han trabajado durante los últimos años en la aplicación de las propiedades plasmónicas de las nanopartículas de galio para la creación de los primeros biosensores basados en este material, capaces de detectar, con una gran sensibilidad, diferentes biomoléculas características de enfermedades raras como la glucogenósis y la fibrosis quística.



Ahora, estos investigadores han logrado probar un novedoso procedimiento con el que se controla las propiedades ópticas mediante la capa externa de óxido en nanopartículas de galio. Gracias a este proceso se podrá sintonizar el rango de detección y mejorar las prestaciones de estos dispositivos.


Biosensores de galio


A partir de la modificación química de su superficie, los biosensores basados en nanopartículas de galio permiten atrapar marcadores específicos de una enfermedad en muestras de sangre, saliva, o lágrimas.



Las propiedades plasmónicas de las nanopartículas producen cambios en la absorción de la luz proporcionales a la concentración de las biomoléculas. Así, mediante sistemas ópticos de bajo coste como la elipsometría, se puede identificar y cuantificar la concentración de estos marcadores, permitiendo el diagnóstico precoz y, al mismo tiempo, proporcionando al enfermo una herramienta de uso cotidiano que le permitirá ajustar las dosis de la medicación y mejorar su calidad de vida.


El sistema es tan sensible que puede detectar concentraciones de 10 nanomolar y de 6 picomolar para el glutatión (glucogenósis) y el ADN (fibrosis quística), respectivamente.


Según los autores, la principal novedad de este trabajo, destacado en la portada de la revista Nanotechnology, reside en la estrategia seguida para modificar el plasmón.


“Los trabajos anteriores se habían concentrado en alterar el tamaño y la forma de las nanopartículas, e incluso el sustrato en el que se depositaban. En este trabajo, el método se basa en oxidaciones de las nanopartículas a baja temperatura (<300ºC), lo cual produce el desplazamiento en energía del plasmón. Esto puede hacerse de manera muy precisa variando el tiempo de oxidación y simplifica significativamente la estrategia a seguir”, describen los investigadores.


“El control del plasmón por medio del óxido nos permite sintonizar el máximo de la absorción con la energía deseada, por ejemplo, para obtener un mayor rendimiento del dispositivo al trabajar con luz láser. Además, un aumento del espesor del óxido aumenta la sensibilidad de la absorción a menores concentraciones de biomoléculas, lo que puede mejorar, es decir, disminuir aún más el límite de detección de los biosensores en un futuro próximo”, concluyen los autores.


Referencia bibliográfica: Sergio Catalán Gómez, Andrés Redondo Cubero, Francisco Javier Palomares, Flavio Nucciarelli and José Luis Pau. Tunable plasmonic resonance of gallium nanoparticles by thermal oxidation at low temperatures. Nanotechnology. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa8505
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